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A filosofia jurídica dos EUA a partir do formalismo

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[46] Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Law in Science- Science in Law, in Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., op.cit., pg. 240.

[47] N.E.H.Hull, Roscoe Pound, in Kermit L. Hall, op.cit., pgs. 623 e ss.

[48] Gary Minda, Postmodern Legal Movements, pg. 26.

[49] Roscoe Pound, Liberty of Contract, in William W. Fisher III, op.cit., pg. 33.

[50] Roscoe Pound, Law in Books and Law in Action, in William W. Fisher III, op.cit., pg. 39.

[51] Roscoe Pound, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Law, pg. 18. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Two needs have determined philosophical thinking about law. On the one hand, the paramount interest in the general security, which as an interest in peace and other dictated the very beginnings if law, has led men to seek some fixed basis of a certain ordering of human action which should restrain magisterial as well as individual willfulness and assure a firm and stable social order. On the other hand, the pressure of less immediate social interests, and the need of reconciling them with the exigencies of the general security, and of making continual new compromises because of continual changes in society, has called ever for readjustment at least of details of the social order.

[52] Laura Kalman, Legal Realism at Yale,1927-1960, pgs. 98 e ss.

[53] John Henry Schlegel, Legal Realism, in Kermit L. Hall, op.cit., pg. 501.

[54] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 27.

[55] Jerome Frank, Law and Modern Mind, pg.3.

[56] Jerome Frank, op.cit., pg. 12.

[57] Jerome Frank, op.cit., pg. 13.

[58] Jerome Frank, op.cit., pg. 17.

[59] Jerome Frank, op.cit.,loc.cit.

[60] Jerome Frank, op.cit., pg. 21.

[61] Jerome Frank, Courts on Trial, pg. 3. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. The legal rules embody or reflect moral norms, social standards, social policies, community ideals or values.

[62] Jerome Frank, op.cit., pg. 7.

[63] Jerome Frank, op.cit., pg. 230.

[64] Jerome Frank, op.cit., pg. 221. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Wise physicians have always admitted that the practice of medicine, while using the sciences, is not a science but is and always will be an art. So we should admit that all government, and court-house in particular, is not and can never be a science, that it is and ever will be an art- and a difficult one.

[65] Williamjames Hull Hoffer, Felix Frankfurter, in Kermit L. Hall, op.cit., pg. 323.

[66] Caso Korematsu vs. United States, U.S. 214 (1944).

[67] Felix Frankfurter e James M. Landis, The Business of the Supreme Court, pg. 59.

[68] N.E.H.Hull, Karl Llewellyn, in Kermit L. Hall, op.cit., pg. 535.

[69] K.N. Llewellyn, Our Law and its Study, pg. 12. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. We have discovered in our teaching of the law that general propositions are empty. We have discovered that students who come eager to learn the rules and who do learn them, and who learn nothing more, will take away the shell and not the substance. We have discovered that rules alone, mere forms of words, are worthless. We have learned that the concrete instance, the heaping up of concrete instances, the present, vital memory of a multitude of concrete instances, is necessary in order to make any general proposition, be it rule of law or any other, mean anything at all.

[70] K.N. Llewellyn, op.cit., pg. 21. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Less as making order than as maintaining order when it has gotten out of order. This is its first aspect, its most ancient aspect, its fundamental aspect.

[71] Lawrence M. Friedman, American Law in the 20 th Century, pgs. 505 e ss.

[72] Irving Stone, Earl Warren, a Great American Story.

[73] William O. Douglas, Go East, Young Man, James C. Duram, Justice William O. Douglas.

[74] Howard Ball, Hugo Black- Cold Steel Warrior.

[75] Elizabeth Krug, Great Lives- Thurgood Marshall, Champion of Civil Rights.

[76] Andrew L. Kaufman, Benjamin Cardozo, in Kermit L. Hall, op.cit., pgs. 87 e ss.

[77] Richard A. Posner, Cardozo, a Study on Reputation, pg. 24.

[78] Richard A. Posner, op.cit., pg. 25.

[79] Richard Polenberg, The World of Benjamin Cardozo, Personal Values and the Judicial Process, pgs. 234 e ss.

[80] Benjamin Cardozo, The Nature of the Judicial Process, pg. 141. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor.The judge, even when he is free, is still not wholly free. He is not a knight-errant roaming at will in pursuit of his own ideal of beauty or of goodness. He is to draw his inspiration from consecrated principles. He is not to yield to spasmodic sentiment, to vague and unregulated benevolence. He is to exercise a discretion informed by tradition, methodized by analogy, disciplined by system, and subordinated to the primordial necessity of order in the social life. Wide enough in all conscience is the field of discretion that remains.

[81] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 114.

[82] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 106.

[83] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 109.

[84] Gary Minda, op.cit., loc.cit.

[85] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 107.

[86] Morton Horwitz, The Transformation of American Law e Warren Court and the Pursuit of Justice.

[87] Percebe-se em Morton Horwitz similitudes com as concepções historiográficas de Walter Benjamin. É o caso da XIV tese da filosofia da história, segundo a qual o historiador dá um salto de tigre no passado, apreendendo apenas o que lhe interessa. Walter Benjamin, Illuminations, pgs. 261 e ss.

[88] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 109.

[89] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 111.

[90] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 110.

[91] São eles: Richard Abel, Lee Albert, John Griffiths, Robert Hudec, Larry Simon e David Trubeck.

[92] Juan A. Pérez Lledó, El Movimiento Critical Legal Studies, pg. 51.

[93] Cidade do estado de Connecticut onde localiza-se a Universidade de Yale.

[94] Juan A. Pérez Lledó, op.cit., loc.cit.

[95] Juan A. Pérez Lledó, op.cit., loc.cit.

[96] Juan A. Pérez Lledó, op.cit., pg. 54.

[97] Juan A. Pérez Lledó, op.cit., loc.cit.

[98] Juan A. Pérez Lledó, op.cit., loc.cit.

[99] Juan A. Pérez Lledó, op.cit., loc.cit.

[100] Juan A. Pérez Lledó, op.cit., pgs. 56 e ss.

[101] Gary Minda, op.cit., pg. 115.

[102] Hugh Collins, Marxism and Law.

[103] Phil Slater, Origins and Significance of the Frankfurt School, pgs. 87 e ss.

 é consultor-geral da União, doutor e mestre em Filosofia do Direito e do Estado pela PUC-SP.

Revista Consultor Jurídico, 7 de julho de 2011, 16h25

Comentários de leitores

1 comentário

Prezado Jusfilósofo

Márcio Augusto Paixão (Advogado Autônomo)

Creio que melhor seria (para nós leitores)que Vossa Senhoria escrevesse um livro sobre o tema, pois me parece evidente o domínio da matéria. A supersintetização adotada para um assunto tão vasto, no meu ponto do vista, tornou o seu artigo materialmente superficial (com todo o respeito). Pela superficialidade, pode ser desinteressante a leitura para aqueles que já estudam jusfilosofia, ao passo em que para os leigos e iniciantes pouco se acrescenta ou se ensina. Eventual abordagem mais detalhada deduzida em uma obra mais extensa já conta com a pretensão de aquisição de parte deste leitor. "Prevalece" não é com "sc". Abraços

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