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[6] Burt Neuborne, op. cit. , pg. 86.

[7] Richard B. Bernstein, The United States Constitution, in George S. Grossman (ed.), The Spirit of American Law, pg. 87.

[8] Gordon Lloyd, Bills of Rights, in Kermit L. Hall (ed.), The Oxford Companion to American Law, pg. 63.

[9] Hugh Brogan, The Penguin History of the USA, pgs. 177 e ss.

[10] Bernard Schwartz, American Constitutional Law, pg. 241.

[11] Peter Irons, A People’s History of the Supreme Court, pg. 71. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Looking back from the perspective of more than two centuries, the emergence of the Bill of Rights from the First Congress in 1789 has as many ironies as the events in Philadelphia that produced the Constitution in 1787. Much like football teams that shift from offense to defense when they lose the ball, the contending sides in the debate over the Bill of Rights switched positions as they fought for control of a brand-new political system.

[12] Lawrence M. Friedman, American Law, an Introduction, pg. 209.

[13] Charles A. Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States.

[14] A instrumentalização juridica da república norte-americana é fortemente influenciada por John Locke, Two Treatises of Government.

[15] John S. Baker, Jr., The Establishment Clause as Intended : No Preference among Sects and Pluralism in a Large Commercial Republic, in Eugene W. Hickok , Jr., op. cit. , pg. 41.

[16] Michael W. McConnell, Free Exercise as the Framers Understood it, in Eugene W. Hickok, Jr, op. cit., pg. 54.

[17] Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of the Capitalism, pg. 41. Tradução do alemão para o ingles de Talcott Parsons.

[18] Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, pgs. 178 e ss. Tradução para o ingles de Stephen D. Grant.

[19] William H. Marnell, The First Amendment, The History of Religious Freedom in America, pgs. 35 e ss.

[20] James E. Leahy, The First Amendment, 1791-1991, Two Hundred Years of Freedom, pgs. 74 e ss.

[21] William Burnham, op. cit., pg. 374.

[22] Norman Vieria, Civil Rights in a Nutshell.

[23] No sistema educacional norte-americano o eighth grade o que corresponde a nossa oitava série do curso fundamental, ou a quarta série do curso ginasial, antes da reforma educacional brasileira de 1972. Trata-se de aluno que tem em média 14 anos de idade.

[24] Harold J. Spaeth e Edward Conrad Smith, The Constitution of the United States, pg. 115.

[25] 310 U.S. 296 (1940).

[26] Harold J. Spaeth e Edward Conrad Smith, op. cit. , pg. 116.

[27] Norman S. Goldenberg (ed.), Casenotes Legal Briefs, Constitutional Law, pg. 111. Peter Irons, op. cit., pg. 336.

[28] Steven L. Emanuel, Constitutional Law, pg. 597.

[29] Steven L. Emanuel, op. cit. , loc. cit.

[30] Steven L. Emanuel, op. cit., loc. cit.

[31] Ellen Alderman e Caroline Kennedy, In Our Defense, The Bill of Rights in Action, pgs. 57 e ss.

[32] Ellen Alderman e Caroline Kennedy, op. cit., pg. 61. Tradução e versão livre do autor. The Indians feared that if the road was built it would destroy the sanctity of the high country forever.

[33] Ellen Alderman e Caroline Kennedy, op. cit., loc. cit.

[34] Ellen Alderman e Caroline Kennedy, op. cit. pg. 64.

[35] Ellen Alderman e Caroline Kennedy, op. cit., pgs. 65 e ss. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor.The Free Exercise Clause is written in terms of what the government can not do to the individual, not in terms of what the individual can exact from the government.

[36] Ela é do Arizona e foi indicada por Ronald Reagan in 1981. Harold J. Spaeth e Edward Conrad Smith, op. cit., pg. 164. Philip J. Cooper, Battles on the Bench, pgs. 42 e ss. , analisa as tendências conservadoras da mencionada juíza, que é ideologicamente vinculada ao ideário republicano. Barbara A. Perry, The Supremes, pgs. 41 e ss.

[37] Ellen Alderman e Caroline Kennedy, op. cit. , pg. 66. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. (...) government simply could not operate if it were required to satisfy every citizen’s religious needs and desires.

[38] Marcus Cunliffe, The Literature of the United States, pgs. 75 e ss.

[39] W. John Campbell, The Book of Great Books, pgs. 715 e ss.

[40] Kathryn Cullen-DuPont, Anne Hutchinson Trials : 1637 and 1638, in Edward W. Knappman (ed.), Great American Trials, pg. 1.

[41] Kathryn Cullen-DuPont, Mary Dyer Trials: 1659 and 1660, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit.), pgs. 10 e ss.

[42] Teddi DiCanio, Salem Witchcraft Trials: 1692, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit.) pgs. 18 e ss.

[43] Kermit L. Hall, William M. Wieck e Paul Finkelman, American Legal History, pg. 51. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor . Nineteen were hanged as witches, and one man was pressed to death for refusing to plead. One of these victims was George Burroughs, a former minister. The witchcraft frenzy in Massachusetts ended as abruptly as it had begun. By the autumn of 1692, many persons outside Salem began to have doubts about the persecutions. The court was discharged, and the remaining accused were freed. The General Court ( the legislative body of the colony ) later enacted a resolution expressing its regret to the survivors of the condemned .

[44] Stephen G. Christianson, Reynolds vs. U.S.: 1879, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit.), pgs. 183 e ss.

[45] Stephen G. Christianson, Reynolds vs. US. : 1879, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit.), pg. 183. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. After a (…) long trek westward, in the mid-19 th century the followers of a religious prophet named Joseph Smith settled the western lands that became the state of Utah. Their religion was called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, but most people called them the Mormons. They held a variety of novel beliefs, ranging from their conviction that Jesus Christ visited the American Indians to a prohibition against caffeine drinks such as coffee and tea. Their most controversial belief, however, was that a man could have more than one wife.

[46] Stephen G. Christianson, George College vs. Jones : 1963, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit.) , pgs. 509 e ss.

[47] Stephen G. Christianson, George College vs. Jones: 1963, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit.), pg. 509.

[48] Edward W. Knappman, John Thomas Scopes Trial : 1925, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit.), pgs. 312 e ss.

[49] Clarence Darrow, The Story of My Life, pgs. 244 e ss.

[50] Norman S. Goldenberg, op. cit., pg. 145.

[51] Norman S. Goldenberg, op.cit., loc. cit. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Religious invocations and benedictions may not be given at a public primary or secondary school graduation ceremony.

[52] 110 S.Ct. 1995 (1990).

[53] O ator Jack Nicholson no filme About Schmidt ( Os Pensamentos de Schmidt ) faz jocosa alusão a nomenclatura. Ao visitar um museu de cultura indígena, diz que os índios hoje em dia gostam de ser chamados de nativo-americanos...

[54] Norman S. Goldenberg, op.cit., pg.148.

[55] Norman S. Goldenberg, op.cit., loc. cit. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. If an act is illegal, the fact it is religiously-based will not make it otherwise.

[56] William Burnham, Introduction to the Law and Legal System of the United States, pg. 355.

[57] 403 U.S. 15 (1971).

[58] Norman S. Goldenberg, op.cit., pg. 124.

[59] Circunstância que retorna com a administração republicana de George W. Bush e ataques ao Iraque. Jornal Boston Globe, Boston, 22 de março de 2003.

[60] 391 U.S. 367 (1968).

[61] Stephen S. Cristianson, Texas vs. Johnson : 1989, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit.), pgs. 766 e ss.

[62] Stephen S. Cristianson, op.cit., pg. 766. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. No matter how unpopular it is to burn an American flag, the First Amendment protects that act and other forms of political expression.

[63] Stephen S. Cristianso, New York Times Company vs. U.S.: 1971, in Edward W. Knappman (op.cit), pgs. 607 e ss.

[64] Colin Evans, Falwell vs. Flint : 1984, in Edward W. Knappman ( op.cit.), pgs. 741 e ss.

[65] Colin Evans, op.cit., pg. 741.

[66] Ellen Alderman e Caroline Kennedy, In Our Defense, the Bill of Rights in Action, pgs. 71 e ss.

[67] Joyce Lee Malcon, To Keep and Bear Arms, pgs. 135 e ss.

[68] Ian Cameron e Douglas Pye (ed.) , The Book of the Westerns.

[69] Martin Pumphrey, Why do cowboys wear hats in the bath ?, in Ian Cameron e Douglas Pye (ed.), op.cit.,pgs. 50 e ss.

[70] Edward Buscombe e Roberta E. Pearson (ed.), Back in the Saddle Again, New Essays on the Western. Gretchen M. Bataille e Charles L.P. Silet, The Pretend Indians, Images of Native Americans in the Movies.

[71] Will Wright, Six Guns and Society, pg. 48.

[72] Harold J. Spaeth e Edward Conrad Smith, The Constitution of the United States, pg. 120.

[73] Edward S. Corwin, The Constitution and what it means today .

[74] John Brigham, Constitutional Language, an Interpretation of Judicial Decision, pgs. 36 e ss.

[75] Erwin Chemerinsky, Interpreting the Constitution, pgs. 45 e ss.

[76] Philip Bobbit, Constitutional Interpretation, pgs. 31 e ss.

[77] Walter Berns, Taking the Constitution Seriously, pgs. 182 e ss.

[78] Cristopher Norris, Deconstruction : Theory and Practice.

 é consultor-geral da União, doutor e mestre em Filosofia do Direito e do Estado pela PUC-SP.

Revista Consultor Jurídico, 24 de abril de 2011, 4h58

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